Author Archives: admin

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What is Arthritis?

Category : Ortho

Arthritis is inflammation of the joints. A gradual wearing away of the tissue on the ends of bones results in reduction of joint space and friction at the exposed bone surfaces, changing regular bone movement and causing severe pain. Knee Replacement Surgery is the best solution to treat the condition and allow resumption of normal activities in the knee.

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ACL Reconstruction

Category : Ortho

If you tear the anterior cruciate ligament in your knee, you may need to have reconstructive surgery.

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a tough band of tissue joining the thigh bone to the shin bone at the knee joint.

It runs diagonally through the inside of the knee and gives the knee joint stability. It also helps control the back-and-forth movement of the lower leg.

ACL injuries

Knee injuries can occur during sports such as skiing, tennis, squash, football and rugby. ACL injuries are the most common type of knee injury, accounting for around 40% of all sports injuries.

You can tear your ACL if your lower leg extends forwards too much. It can also be torn if your knee and lower leg are twisted.

Common causes of an ACL injury include:

  • landing incorrectly from a jump
  • stopping suddenly
  • changing direction suddenly
  • having a collision, such as during a football tackle

If the ACL is torn, your knee will become very unstable and lose its full range of movement. This can make it difficult to perform certain movements, such as turning on the spot. Some sports may be impossible to play.

Deciding to have surgery

The decision to have knee surgery will depend on the extent of damage to your ACL and whether it’s affecting your quality of life.

If your knee doesn’t feel unstable and you don’t have an active lifestyle, you may decide not to have ACL surgery.

However, when deciding whether to have surgery it’s important to be aware that a delay could cause further damage to your knee.

Examining your knee

After you’ve been anaesthetised, the surgeon will carefully examine the inside of your knee, usually with a medical instrument called an arthroscope (see below).

Your surgeon will check that your ACL is torn and look for damage to other parts of your knee. If there’s other damage, your surgeon might repair it during the surgery or it may be treated after your operation.

After confirming that your ACL is torn, your surgeon will remove the graft tissue ready for relocation.

Graft tissue

A number of different tissues can be used to replace your ACL.

Tissue taken from your own body is known as an autograft. Tissue taken from a donor is known as an allograft. A donor is someone who has given permission for parts of their body to be used after they die by someone who needs them.

Before your operation, your surgeon will discuss the best option with you. Tissues that could be used to replace your ACL are listed below.

  • A strip of your patellar tendon – this is the tendon running from the bottom of the kneecap (patella) to the top of the shin bone (tibia) at the front of your knee.
  • Part of your hamstring tendons – these run from the back of your knee on the inner side all the way up to your thigh.
  • Part of your quadriceps tendon – this is the tendon that attaches the patella to the quadriceps muscle, which is the large muscle on the front of your thigh.
  • An allograft (donor tissue) – this could be the patellar tendon or Achilles tendon (the tendon that attaches the back of the heel to the calf muscle) from a donor.
  • A synthetic graft – this is a tubular structure designed to replace a torn ligament.

The most commonly used autograft tissues are the patellar tendon and the hamstring tendons. Both have been found to be equally successful.

Allograft tissue may be the preferred option for people who are not going to be playing high-demand sports, such as basketball or football, as these tendons are slightly weaker.

Synthetic (man-made) tissues are currently used in certain situations, such as revision surgery and multi-ligament injuries.

The graft tissue will be removed and cut to the correct size. It will then be positioned in the knee and fixed to the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone). This is usually carried out using a technique known as a knee arthroscopy.


An arthroscopy is a type of keyhole surgery. It uses a medical instrument called an arthroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with bundles of fibre optic cables inside that act as both a light source and camera.

Your surgeon will make a small incision on the front of your knee and insert the arthroscope. The arthroscope will illuminate your knee joint and relay images of your knee to a television monitor. This will allow the surgeon to see the inside of your knee clearly.

Additional small incisions will be made in your knee so that other medical instruments can be inserted. The surgeon will use these instruments to remove the torn ligament and reconstruct your ACL.

Your surgeon will make a tunnel in your bone to pass the new tissue through. The graft tissue will be positioned in the same place as the old ACL, and held in place with screws or staples that will remain in your knee permanently.

Final examination

After the graft tissue has been secured, your surgeon will test that there is enough tension in it (that it’s strong enough to hold your knee together).

They’ll also check that your knee has the full range of motion and that the graft keeps your knee stable when it’s bent or moved.

When the surgeon is satisfied that everything is working properly, they’ll use stitches to close the incisions and apply dressings.

After the procedure, you’ll be moved to a hospital ward to begin your recovery.

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Hip Replacement

Category : Ortho

Hip replacement is done for people having serious hip bone damage. When you have hip joint damage, the surgeon replaces the hip bone with artificial one. The doctors will ensure that the man made parts would have the similar functions of the natural one.

This treatment would enhance you with better hip joint movements, strain less walking and other movements. The most common type of hip arthritis is osteoarthritis. This is generally called as “wear-and-tear” arthritis, and it results in the wearing away of the normal smooth cartilage until bare bone is exposed.

Hip surgery

  • Hip resurfacing: An alternative to hip replacement and a potential solution for younger patients.
  • Partial hip replacement: An alternative to total hip replacement, ideal for people suffering from a hip injury.
  • Total hip replacement: A longstanding option for arthritis pain that completely replaces diseased joint.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

The most common reason to have this surgery is to relieve severe arthritis pain that is limiting your activities.

Most of the time, hip joint replacement is usually done in people age 60 and older, but many people who have this surgery are younger. Younger people who have a hip replaced may put extra stress on the artificial hip. That extra stress can cause it to wear out earlier than in older patients. Part or all of the joint may need to be replaced again if that happens.

Your doctor may recommend a hip replacement for these problems:

  • You can’t sleep through the night because of hip pain
  • Your hip pain has not gotten better with other treatments
  • Hip pain limits or prevents you from doing your normal activities, such as bathing, preparing meals, doing household chores, and walking
  • You have problems walking that require you to use a cane or walker.

Other reasons for replacing the hip joint are:

  • Fractures in the thigh bone. Older adults often have a hip replacement for this reason.
  • Hip joint tumors

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Knee replacement in Kerala

Knee Replacement

Category : Ortho

Knee replacement is a surgical procedure to rectify serious knee damage by removing damaged cartilage and bone in the knee joint. Then, human made artificial bones or joints are replaced. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to be more active.

Knee surgery

  • Arthroscopic, minimally invasive surgery: Uses tiny tools and small incisions to repair knee damage
  • ACL reconstruction: Replaces a damaged ligament in the center of the knee with a healthy ligament.
  • Unicompartmental knee surgery: Because only one part of the damaged knee is replaced, this procedure is also called a partial knee replacement.
  • Total knee replacement: Removes damaged, often arthritic, cartilage and bone and replaces it with an artificial joint.

Because it is minimally invasive, arthroscopy offers the patient many benefits over traditional surgery. These include:

  • No cutting of muscles or tendons
  • Less bleeding during surgery
  • Less scarring
  • Smaller incisions
  • Faster recovery and return to regular activities
  • Faster and more comfortable rehabilitation